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doc:l:lighttpd_1_14_29

安装 lighttpd 於 FreeBSD

作者:zeissoctopus

以下是我安装和配置 lighttpd 1.4.29 万维网服务器於 FreeBSD 8-Stable 的笔记。我会启动以下几项功能:

  1. SSL
  2. lighttpd 的 simple namebase virtualhost
  3. FastCGI 支援 PHP

1: 安装软件

从 ports 编译安装 lighttpd 入 FreeBSD

% cd /usr/ports/www/lighttpd
% su root
# make install
# make clean
# exit

以下是我用 ports 编译 lighttpd 时所选择的选项

WITHOUT_BZIP2true
WITHOUT_CMLtrue
WITHOUT_FAMtrue
WITHOUT_GDBMtrue
WITH_IPV6true
WITHOUT_LIBEVtrue
WITHOUT_MAGNETtrue
WITHOUT_MEMCACHEtrue
WITHOUT_MYSQLtrue
WITHOUT_MYSQLAUTHtrue
WITHOUT_NODELAYtrue
WITHOUT_OPENLDAPtrue
WITH_OPENSSLtrue
WITHOUT_SPAWNFCGItrue
WITHOUT_VALGRINDtrue
WITHOUT_WEBDAVtrue

FreeBSD 默认 Httpd 使用者身份是 www:www

2: 安排网站的文件目录

lighttpd 执行时,会产生一些文件。lighttpd 也会找寻网站实际放置的位置。因此需要事先安排妥当。因为我只需要 lighttpd 为一个 domain 服务,所以我只需要依 从 simple virtualhost 规则建立网站的目录结构。然而所有文件位置皆可以自由安排,本例子是依从我个人喜好来决定而已。

lighttpd 执行时产生的文件

目录 文件对应 lighttpd 配置内的变量名称
/var/run/一些状态文件var.state_dir
/var/log/lighttpd一些 log 文件var.log_root
/var/lib/lighttpd/socketsPHP FastCGI socket 文件var.socket_dir
/usr/local/etc/lighttpd配置文件目录var.conf_dir

lighttpd 的 simple namebase virtualhost 目录安排

除了根目录外,其余皆以 virtual host 网站名称来命名目录

目录内容对应 lighttpd 配置内的变量名称
/home/wwwVirtual Host 的总根目录var.vhosts_dir
/home/www/example.org依你的 domain 名称命名simple-vhost.default-host
/home/www/example.org/htdocs你的 domain 网站的根目录simple-vhost.document-root
/home/www/wiki.example.org分拆 subdomain 的 virtualhostN/A
/home/www/wiki.example.org/htdocs你的 subdomain 网站的根目录N/A

3: 配置 FreeBSD ports 里的 lighttpd

在 FreeBSD 里默认配置文件的位置

目录文件内容
/usr/local/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conflighttpd 主配置文件
modules.conf选择载入那个模块
/usr/local/etc/lighttpd/conf.d/access_log.conf各模块专属配置文件
auth.conf
cgi.conf
cml.conf
compress.conf
debug.conf
dirlisting.conf
evhost.conf
expire.conf
fastcgi.conf
magnet.conf
mime.conf
mysql_vhost.conf
proxy.conf
rrdtool.conf
scgi.conf
secdownload.conf
simple_vhost.conf
ssi.conf
status.conf
trigger_b4_dl.conf
userdir.conf
webdav.conf

有关本例子载入配置文件的次序

本例子会启动 Lighttpdsslfastcgisimple_vhost 模块,因此有关配置文件会按以 下次序读入:

  1. /usr/local/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
  2. /usr/local/etc/lighttpd/modules.conf
  3. /usr/local/etc/lighttpd/conf.d/fastcgi.conf
  4. /usr/local/etc/lighttpd/conf.d/simple_vhost.conf

换言之,本例子只需要适当修改以上4个配置文件。

lighttpd.conf 内容

lighttpd.conf
#######################################################################
##
## /usr/local/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## 定义有些有关目录的变量
##
var.log_root    = "/var/log/lighttpd"
var.state_dir   = "/var/run"
var.home_dir    = "/var/spool/lighttpd"
var.conf_dir    = "/usr/local/etc/lighttpd"
 
##
## Virutal Hosts 的根目录
##
## 用于以下模块:
## conf.d/evhost.conf
## conf.d/simple_vhost.conf
## vhosts.d/vhosts.template
##
var.vhosts_dir  = "/home/www"
 
##
## CGI/FastCGI socket 目录
##
## 用于以下模块:
## conf.d/fastcgi.conf
## conf.d/scgi.conf
##
var.socket_dir  = "/var/lib/lighttpd/sockets"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## 载入模块定义文件
include "modules.conf"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
##  Lighttpd 基本设定
## ---------------------
##
server.port = 80
 
## 用否 IPv6?
server.use-ipv6 = "disable"
 
## 缚紧 IP
server.bind = "127.0.0.1"
 
## Lighttpd 以什么身份执行.
server.username  = "www"
server.groupname = "www"
 
## Server: 回应字串
server.tag = "lighttpd"
 
## Lighttpd 的 pid 文件
server.pid-file = state_dir + "/lighttpd.pid"
 
## 默认文件目录
server.document-root = "/home/www/example.org/htdocs/"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
##  Logging 选项
## ------------------
##
server.errorlog             = log_root + "/lighttpd-error.log"
 
##
## Access log config
## 
include "conf.d/access_log.conf"
 
##
## The debug options are moved into their own file.
## see conf.d/debug.conf for various options for request debugging.
##
include "conf.d/debug.conf"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
##  Tuning/Performance
## --------------------
##
server.event-handler = "freebsd-kqueue"
 
##
## The basic network interface for all platforms at the syscalls read()
## and write(). Every modern OS provides its own syscall to help network
## servers transfer files as fast as possible 
##
## linux-sendfile - is recommended for small files.
## writev         - is recommended for sending many large files
##
server.network-backend = "writev"
 
##
## As lighttpd is a single-threaded server, its main resource limit is
## the number of file descriptors, which is set to 1024 by default (on
## most systems).
##
## If you are running a high-traffic site you might want to increase this
## limit by setting server.max-fds.
##
## Changing this setting requires root permissions on startup. see
## server.username/server.groupname.
##
## By default lighttpd would not change the operation system default.
## But setting it to 2048 is a better default for busy servers.
##
server.max-fds = 2048
 
##
## Stat() call caching.
##
## lighttpd can utilize FAM/Gamin to cache stat call.
##
## possible values are:
## disable, simple or fam.
##
server.stat-cache-engine = "simple"
 
##
## Fine tuning for the request handling
##
## max-connections == max-fds/2 (maybe /3)
## means the other file handles are used for fastcgi/files
##
server.max-connections = 1024
 
##
## How many seconds to keep a keep-alive connection open,
## until we consider it idle. 
##
## Default: 5
##
server.max-keep-alive-idle = 5
 
##
## How many keep-alive requests until closing the connection.
##
## Default: 16
##
server.max-keep-alive-requests = 16
 
##
## Maximum size of a request in kilobytes.
## By default it is unlimited (0).
##
## Uploads to your server cant be larger than this value.
##
server.max-request-size = 0
 
##
## Time to read from a socket before we consider it idle.
##
## Default: 60
##
server.max-read-idle = 60
 
##
## Time to write to a socket before we consider it idle.
##
## Default: 360
##
server.max-write-idle = 360
 
##
##  Traffic Shaping 
## -----------------
##
## see /usr/share/doc/lighttpd/traffic-shaping.txt
##
## Values are in kilobyte per second.
##
## Keep in mind that a limit below 32kB/s might actually limit the
## traffic to 32kB/s. This is caused by the size of the TCP send
## buffer. 
##
## per server:
##
server.kbytes-per-second = 128
 
##
## per connection:
##
connection.kbytes-per-second = 32
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
##  Filename/File handling
## ------------------------
 
##
## files to check for if .../ is requested
## index-file.names            = ( "index.php", "index.rb", "index.html",
##                                 "index.htm", "default.htm" )
##
index-file.names += (
  "index.xhtml", "index.html", "index.htm", "index.php"
)
 
##
## deny access the file-extensions
##
## ~    is for backupfiles from vi, emacs, joe, ...
## .inc is often used for code includes which should in general not be part
##      of the document-root
url.access-deny             = ( "~", ".inc" )
 
##
## disable range requests for pdf files
## workaround for a bug in the Acrobat Reader plugin.
##
$HTTP["url"] =~ "\.pdf$" {
  server.range-requests = "disable"
}
 
##
## which extensions should not be handle via static-file transfer
##
## .php, .pl, .fcgi are most often handled by mod_fastcgi or mod_cgi
##
static-file.exclude-extensions = ( ".php", ".php5", ".pl", ".fcgi", ".scgi" )
 
##
## mimetype mapping
##
include "conf.d/mime.conf"
 
##
## directory listing configuration
##
include "conf.d/dirlisting.conf"
 
##
## Should lighttpd follow symlinks?
## 
server.follow-symlink = "disable"
 
##
## force all filenames to be lowercase?
##
server.force-lowercase-filenames = "disable"
 
##
## defaults to /var/tmp as we assume it is a local harddisk
##
server.upload-dirs = ( "/var/tmp" )
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## SSL Settings
##
$SERVER["socket"] == ":443" {
ssl.engine = "enable"
ssl.pemfile = "/usr/local/etc/ssl/crt/YourHost.pem"
ssl.use-sslv3 = "enable"
ssl.cipher-list = "TLSv1+HIGH:SSLv3+HIGH:!aNULL:!eNULL:!3DES:@STRENGTH"
}
 
## 
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## Simple virtual host
##
 
$HTTP["host"] != "wiki.example.org" {
 accesslog.filename = log_root + "/example.org-access.log" 
}
 
 
$HTTP["host"] == "wiki.example.org" {
 accesslog.filename = log_root + "/wiki.example.org-access.log" 
}

modules.conf 内容

modules.conf
#######################################################################
##
##  Modules to load
## -----------------
##
## at least mod_access and mod_accesslog should be loaded
## all other module should only be loaded if really neccesary
##
## - saves some time
## - saves memory
##
## the default module set contains:
##
## "mod_indexfile", "mod_dirlisting", "mod_staticfile"
##
## you dont have to include those modules in your list
##
## Modules, which are pulled in via conf.d/*.conf
##
## NOTE: the order of modules is important.
##
## - mod_accesslog     -> conf.d/access_log.conf
## - mod_compress      -> conf.d/compress.conf
## - mod_status        -> conf.d/status.conf
## - mod_webdav        -> conf.d/webdav.conf
## - mod_cml           -> conf.d/cml.conf
## - mod_evhost        -> conf.d/evhost.conf
## - mod_simple_vhost  -> conf.d/simple_vhost.conf
## - mod_mysql_vhost   -> conf.d/mysql_vhost.conf
## - mod_trigger_b4_dl -> conf.d/trigger_b4_dl.conf
## - mod_userdir       -> conf.d/userdir.conf
## - mod_rrdtool       -> conf.d/rrdtool.conf
## - mod_ssi           -> conf.d/ssi.conf
## - mod_cgi           -> conf.d/cgi.conf
## - mod_scgi          -> conf.d/scgi.conf
## - mod_fastcgi       -> conf.d/fastcgi.conf
## - mod_proxy         -> conf.d/proxy.conf
## - mod_secdownload   -> conf.d/secdownload.conf
## - mod_expire        -> conf.d/expire.conf
##
 
server.modules = (
  "mod_access",
  "mod_alias",
  "mod_auth",
#  "mod_evasive",
  "mod_redirect",
  "mod_rewrite",
  "mod_setenv",
#  "mod_usertrack",
)
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
##  Config for various Modules
##
 
##
## mod_ssi
##
#include "conf.d/ssi.conf"
 
##
## mod_status
##
#include "conf.d/status.conf"
 
##
## mod_webdav
##
#include "conf.d/webdav.conf"
 
##
## mod_compress
##
#include "conf.d/compress.conf"
 
##
## mod_userdir
##
#include "conf.d/userdir.conf"
 
##
## mod_magnet
##
#include "conf.d/magnet.conf"
 
##
## mod_cml
##
#include "conf.d/cml.conf"
 
##
## mod_rrdtool
##
#include "conf.d/rrdtool.conf"
 
##
## mod_proxy
##
#include "conf.d/proxy.conf"
 
##
## mod_expire
##
#include "conf.d/expire.conf"
 
##
## mod_secdownload
##
#include "conf.d/secdownload.conf"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## CGI modules
##
 
##
## SCGI (mod_scgi)
##
#include "conf.d/scgi.conf"
 
##
## FastCGI (mod_fastcgi)
##
include "conf.d/fastcgi.conf"
 
##
## plain old CGI (mod_cgi)
##
#include "conf.d/cgi.conf"
 
##
#######################################################################
 
#######################################################################
##
## VHost Modules
##
##  Only load ONE of them!
## ========================
##
 
##
## You can use conditionals for vhosts aswell.
## 
## see http://www.lighttpd.net/documentation/configuration.html
##
 
##
## mod_evhost
##
#include "conf.d/evhost.conf"
 
##
## mod_simple_vhost
##
include "conf.d/simple_vhost.conf"
 
##
## mod_mysql_vhost
##
#include "conf.d/mysql_vhost.conf"
 
##
#######################################################################

fastcgi.conf 内容

以下 fastcgi.conf 仅支援 PHP5,并以 socket 方式来连接 Lighttpd 和 FastCGI Daemon,在 FreeBSD 里,php-cgi 是放在 /usr/local/bin 目录。

fastcgi.conf
#######################################################################
##
##  FastCGI Module 
## --------------- 
##
## http://www.lighttpd.net/documentation/fastcgi.html
##
server.modules += ( "mod_fastcgi" )
 
##
## PHP Example
## For PHP don't forget to set cgi.fix_pathinfo = 1 in the php.ini.
##
## The number of php processes you will get can be easily calculated:
##
## num-procs = max-procs * ( 1 + PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN )
##
## for the php-num-procs example it means you will get 17*5 = 85 php
## processes. you always should need this high number for your very
## busy sites. And if you have a lot of RAM. :)
##
fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
                   ( "php-local" =>
                     (
                       "socket" => socket_dir + "/php-fcgi.socket",
                       "bin-path" => "/usr/local/bin/php-cgi",
                       "bin-environment" => (
                         "PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN" => "8",
                         "PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS" => "10000",
                       ),
                       "max-procs" => 1,
                       "broken-scriptfilename" => "enable",
                     )
                   ),
                )

simple_vhost.conf 内容

simple_vhost.conf
#######################################################################
##
##  Simple Virtual hosting 
## ------------------------ 
##
## http://www.lighttpd.net/documentation/simple-vhost.html
##
server.modules += ( "mod_simple_vhost" )
 
##  If you want name-based virtual hosting add the next three settings and load
##  mod_simple_vhost
##
## document-root =
##   virtual-server-root + virtual-server-default-host + virtual-server-docroot
## or
##   virtual-server-root + http-host + virtual-server-docroot
##
simple-vhost.server-root   = vhosts_dir + "/"
simple-vhost.default-host  = "example.org"
simple-vhost.document-root = "htdocs"
 
##
## Print some errors for finding the document-root
##
#simple-vhost.debug = "enable"
 
##
#######################################################################

4: 启动 Lighttpd 服务

请在 /etc/rc.conf 加入以下一行。那么每次重启 FreeBSD 皆会自动启动 Lighttpd

lighttpd_enable="YES"

不想重启 FreeBSB,立即启动 Lighttpd 的话,按上面修改 /etc/rc.conf 后输入以下命令便可。

% su -
# service lighttpd start
# exit
/data/vhosts/wiki-data/pages/doc/l/lighttpd_1_14_29.txt · 最后更改: 2011/11/25 13:05 由 zeissoctopus